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Culture of Aceh Tribe

Aceh tribe is one of the tribes of Indonesia who inhabit the most western region of the archipelago unity of the Republic of Indonesia. Aceh region or called Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam as indigenous region of Aceh tribe has special historical roots for the country of Indonesia. Therefore, its regional status since the independence era is part of the area which was favored by the Indonesian government. In ancient times Aceh was better known as Daerah Istimewa Aceh (D.I Aceh), but since this region has applied Islamic law in its local government, Aceh was later known as Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Aceh also holds the nickname as the land of Serambi Mecca, this is because Aceh has an Islamic ideological value that is so thick and inherent life in its social system. The ideological value of Islam that lives in the social system of Aceh is very coloring products of the Tribal Culture of Aceh.

Tribal ethnic mixing that inhabits the land of Aceh and then bound in an integrated Aceh community system ranging from geography, language, and religion that later formed the customs and traditions of the culture of Aceh tribe that has its own peculiarity when compared with other tribal cultures in Indonesia. Some of the iconic cultural icons of Aceh land which also become the icon of Indonesian culture among others we will peel the following: Aceh tribe itself in its history is actually a descendant of various tribes who come and then settled in the land of Aceh. However, based on Acehnese history and legend, Aceh's oldest tribe comes from the Mante (Mantir) tribe originating from Malay and Lhan (Lanun) tribes originating from the Malay Peninsula (Indian territory). Nevertheless, when trade took place during the Hindu kingdom, Buddhism until the entry of Islam, Acehnese tribal people became more varied due to marriage with traders entering Aceh land. As a result not a few tribes of Aceh who are also of Indian descent, Persian, Arabic and Turkish.

1.Custom home      

The traditional house of Aceh is usually called 'Rumoh Aceh' or 'Krong Bade'. Rumoh Aceh has a house structure on stilts that is usually 2.5 to 3 meters from the ground. All rumoh aceh made of wood, while the roof comes from woven leaves or leaves leaf rumbia. The underneath (bottom) rumoh Aceh is commonly used as a place to store food ingredients. While the upper room (part of the stage) is the main room that is used to receive guests and rest. One of the uniqueness of rumoh aceh is located on the number of stairs that deliver into the main stage space. The staircase will always be an odd number as a symbol of the religiosity of the Acehnese tribe.
The structure of the division of the room at rumoh aceh is divided into three spaces that have the main function
  • Seuramoe Keue
Is the front room of rumoh Aceh. This room is usually functioned as a place to receive guests or also used as a place to gather and chatting family.
  • Seuramoe Teungoh
Is the core room of rumoh Aceh. This room is located after the front room marked by the height of different floors. Seuramoe Teungoh is only allowed to be entered by family members, so guests who visit at all are prohibited from entering this room. This core room is a family bed room, usually when a dead family is also used as a place to bathe and take care of the corpse.
  • Seuramoe Likot
Is the last room located at the very back of rumoh Aceh. This room has a function as a place to cook, as well as a place to eat with family. This room is high parallel to the front room, so it is lower than the core room.
Learn also the other tribal house forms in the article: Banjar Culture, Minangkabau Culture, Papuan Culture.

2. Traditional clothes

Traditional clothing Acehnese tribe is a historical relic of the kingdom of perlak and Samudra Pasai. Indigenous men's clothing in Aceh is usually called the 'Linto Baro' clothes. As for women's clothing called 'Daro Baro'. Customary clothing is usually used during special occasions such as traditional ceremonies or government events.

While the clothes of women 'Daro Baro' is a blend of clothes tops in the form of long-sleeved shirts and have a collar that is also stylish clothes like the collar of Chinese clothing. The bottom is also the same wearing civet shorts pants are also wrapped with a sarong up to knee. At the head do not use head cover, only hair is formed bun and then given a kind of hair ornament. 'Daro Baro' is usually also equipped with jewelry accessories such as necklaces, bracelets, anklets, earrings and a golden yellow belt. 'Linto Baro' dress worn by men is a blend of a superstar suit called 'Meukasah' and Subordinate trousers called 'crack civet' or there is also a mention pants 'sileuweu'. Dress meukasah has a gold thread embroidered ornament design similar to china clothing design. It is said that this is the result of the assimilation between Malay clothing and Chinese clothing. The combination of superiors and subordinates is then combined with a sarong cloth that is looped at the waist. This suit also comes with a head cover called 'Meukotop'. Meukotop is a kind of skull wrapped with winding tangkulok is a coil that comes from silk-shaped silk worn by a square-shaped star usually made from gold or brass.
Learn also other custom clothing forms in the article: Baduy Culture, Lampung Culture, East Nusa Tenggara Culture

3. Traditional ceremonies

  • Troen Bak Tanoeh's Ceremony
Is a ceremony held at the birth of the baby. This ceremony is also called a ground-breaking ceremony where the baby's mother and her baby are for the first time allowed to leave the house. In the belief of the Aceh tribe, the mother of the newborn baby is still in a dirty or unholy condition or so-called childbirth so it is forbidden to leave the house. After this time passed the mother of the baby and her baby is allowed out of the house accompanied by this tan tan tan ceremony as a sign that the baby's mother has been sacred again.
  • Birth Ceremony
There are several stages in performing the birth ceremony. The first stage is called a 'shoulder ceremony', the ceremony is performed at the age of pregnancy was at the age of 4-5 months. At the shoulder ceremony, the mother-in-law will make food for her son-in-law which is full of rice with side dishes and a number of fruits put in a container called kating. Furthermore, this food is delivered to the son-in-law accompanied by the relatives (kawon) and the neighbors (Jiran) to then rice in kating served and eaten together. The shoulder ceremony is usually repeated when the pregnancy enters the age of 7-8 months.
The second stage is called 'peunulang', the form of adat is almost the same as the shoulder ceremony, which distinguishes only those who submit and receive kating. In customary peunulang, who submit is in-laws and besan at the same time, while the recipient is mablien (people who are considered experts in helping the delivery). Peuneulang also comes with the delivery of betel trails, some money and sesalin (one set of clothes). Since peunulang, then mablien will be diligent to visit and control the condition of pregnant women and help the process of care until the birth comes.
The third stage is the procession of birth, in this birth process mablien plays a very important and central role. At the time the baby is born, the mablien will tie the baby's umbilical cord with an odd number of bonds, which is 7 bonds for the son and 5 bonds for the princess, then just cut the umbilical cord by using a nose (cutting tool coming from bamboo). On the 7th day of birth will be performed ceremony menyangke slave hair is a baby haircut ceremony as well as giving the baby name, and ceremony peucicap the tradition of applying bee honey on baby lips.
The last stage is called 'manao peut ploh peut', the activity of bathing the baby's mother with water mixed with lime slices performed by mablien as a symbol of mother's baby's purification. As an expression of gratitude usually the family will provide some gifts to mablien in the form of money and food.
  • Marriage ceremony
The Acehnese marriage ceremony consists of several stages:
  1. Ba Ranup, which is the stage of applying for a bride.
  2. Jakba Tanda, namely the engagement stage between the two prospective brides.
  3. Party of the wedding, the party that is done after the two bride-to-be perform the wedding in accordance with religion.
  4. Tueng Dara Baro, a tradition of picking up by men in accordance with Aceh's customary law
  5. Tueng Linto Baro, the tradition of picking up by women in accordance with Aceh adat law.
  • Ceremony of Troen U Laoet
It is a ceremony of some kind of feast performed during the seasons. Aiming as gratitude for the results of fish in the sea abundant.

  • Ceremony of Troen U Blang
It is the ceremony of the feast that is done when the rice planting season begins. Aiming as gratitude for the rice crop can harvest with abundance.
  • Peusijuek Ceremony
Is a tradition of splashing water mixed with fresh flour to people who want to perform certain intentions. It is believed that this tradition should be given to people who have been given peusijuek to avoid danger when carrying out their intentions. Peusijuek ceremony is usually performed along with other ceremonial activities.
All forms of traditional ceremonies of each element always have a philosophical and imply a certain meaning of life (read: elements of culture). Therefore each tribe must have a tradition of traditional ceremonies that will be preserved for generations.

4. Traditional Dance

Traditional Acehnese traditional dances are Saman dance. Saman Dance has elements of beauty of dance art that can be practically unique. Saman dance is a dance whose dance rely on hand clapping motion and clapping on the chest, without being accompanied by a musical instrument game. This dance is also one of the traditional Indonesian dances that have been registered in UNESCO as a UN agency that takes care of cultural issues. At first Saman dance is a dance owned by ethnic Gayo, which is one of the oldest ethnic Aceh tribe. Saman Dance performed entirely by men, while women are forbidden to play this dance. In addition to dance Saman, Aceh also has a number of other dances that also rely on hand movements such as laweut dance, dance tarek pukat, dance meuseukat, dance likok pulo dance ratoh duek aceh.

5. Customary weapons

Acehnese traditional weapon is 'Rencong'. Rencong is a small-sized weapon of a kind of keris that began to be used by the Tribe Aceh since the time of the sultanate of Aceh. Rencong is one of the complementary customs clothing of Acehnese tribesmen. In addition to rencong, the Acehnese tribe also uses Siwah, a rencong-like weapon but has a longer size. In addition there Peudeung, which resembles a sword and is longer than Siwah.
Learn also other tribal weapons: Sundanese Culture, South Sumatra Culture

6. Indigenous Food

Traditional food that is often served by the people of Aceh has the same style of cuisine as Indian cuisine. Among them are like rolled bread and curry or goat curry. In addition, the people of Aceh also often serve food-based fish such as eungkot paya. Meanwhile, in terms of beverages, the people of Aceh used to consume coffee both black coffee and coffee mixed with milk.

The Aceh peninsula is the entrance to the world trade route in the ancient world, so it is natural that the characteristics of Acehnese culture have unique blend of Malay, Indian, Chinese and Arabic cultures, because it is the nations that in the past often made the voyage to trade And Aceh is a syahbandar which is always used as a place to lean boats and activities of trading spices and other merchandise. Tribal culture of Aceh is a legacy that continues to be maintained by the formal government and customary government that exist in Aceh for the cultural icons that became one of the privileges of the people of Aceh is not lost eroded the times.


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